Saturday, January 19, 2019

Cannabis Phytoremediation Sciene Paper

Cannabis sativa L. growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: Growth, cadmium uptake and photosynthesis

Linger, P., Ostwald, A., Haensler, J.

a) Physiological Chemistry of Plants, Dept. C - Mathematics and Science, Bergische University of Wuppertal, Gauss Str. 20, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany

a) Geobotany, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitatsstr. 1, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany

Abstract

The effects of different cadmium concentrations [17 mg(Cd) kg -1(soil) and 72 mg(Cd) kg- 1(soil)] on Cannabis sativa L. growth and photosynthesis were examined. Hemp roots showed a high tolerance to Cd, i.e. more than 800 mg(Cd) kg-1(d.m.) in roots had no major effect on hemp growth, whereas in leaves and stems concentrations of 50 - 100 mg(Cd) kg-1(d.m.) had a strong effect on plant viability and vitality. For control of heavy metal uptake and xylem loading in hemp roots, the soil pH plays a central role. Photosynthetic performance and regulation of light energy consumption were analysed using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic performance were visible in control plants and plants growing on soil with 17 mg(Cd) kg-1(soil). Energy distribution in photosystem 2 is regulated in low and high energy phases that allow optimal use of light and protect photosystem 2 from overexcitation, respectively. Photosynthesis and energy dissipation were negatively influenced by 72 mg(Cd) kg-1(soil). Cd had detrimental effects on chlorophyll synthesis, water splitting apparatus, reaction centre, antenna and energy distribution of PS 2. Under moderate cadmium concentrations, i.e. 17 mg(Cd) kg -1(soil), hemp could preserve growth as well as the photosynthesis apparatus, and long-term acclimation to chronically Cd stress occurred.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

An Asian grass can be the key to removing lead from contaminated soil

An Asian grass can be the key to removing lead from contaminated soil:
Sewan grass (Lasiurus scindicus Henrard) is a perennial grass that can live up to 20 years. It is a bushy, multi-branched desert grass with ascending to erect wiry stems, up to a height of 1-1.6 m, and a stout woody rhizome (FAO, 2010; Ecocrop, 2010). Leaves are alternate with a thin leaf-blade. The inflorescence is a silky, 10 cm long raceme bearing hairy spikelets. The fruit is a caryopsis (Anon., 2010; eFloras, 2010; FAO, 2010; Burkill, 1985).

Sewan grass forms bushy thickets in sandy deserts where it is used for pasture, hay and fodder for livestock. This grazing pasture is of outmost importance in areas where annual rainfall is below 250 mm (Ecocrop, 2010). It is relished by ruminants but does not stand heavy grazing and disappears when overgrazed (El-Keblawy et al., 2009).

Modern agricultural practices have left long-lasting environmental damage, but the latest trend in scientific research – which looks for natural ways of reversing this damage – is hopeful.

Research from JECRC University in India is no exception, as they found a process which restores soil that has been polluted with lead. The study, published in the American […] For the study, researchers utilized phytoremediation to remove the lead from contaminated soil.
Defined as “the efficient use of plants to remove, detoxify or immobilize environmental contaminants in a growth matrix (soil, water or sediments) through the natural biological, chemical or physical activities and processes of the plant,” the procedure refers to a number of technologies that use plants to remove both organic and inorganic contaminants in soil and water.

 In this procedure, plants are grown in polluted soil to either remove a contaminant, contain it in their roots, or even degrade it completely. These plants are then harvested, processed, and disposed of.


The team first collected soil and water samples that have been contaminated by lead and put these in pots in differing concentrations. They then sowed sewan grass over a 105-day pot trial period. During this time, the team regularly sampled the soil and water to evaluate the amount of heavy metal was present in the soil.



Based on the findings, the researchers discovered that lead adversely affected the growth of sewan grass from the experiment. However, they also found that it was receptive to the lead and that the roots had accumulated it. During the samples, they found increased concentrations of lead in the roots on the 45th and 65th day after exposure.



“The lead accumulation in Lasiurus scindicus (mostly in its roots) confirming its potentiality as a phytoremediator and due to polluted soil pH high amount of lead accumulated in root compare to [the leaves],” the researchers concluded. They also looked at the potential of the grass to be further developed to restore lead-polluted soil.






Phytomining: Plant biomass containing accumulated heavy metals can be combusted to get energy and the remaining ash is considered as ‘‘bio-ore’’.

Phytomining: Plant biomass containing accumulated heavy metals can be combusted to get energy and the remaining ash is considered as ‘‘bio-ore’’.


This bio-ore can be processed for the recovery



An advantage of phytomining is the sale of energy from combustion of the biomass (Anderson et al., 1999). According to a field experiment conducted by Meers et al. (2010), cultivation of energy maize in the Campine region in Belgium and the Netherlands could result in the generation of


  • 30000–42 000 kWhel+th of renewable energy per hectare. 
  • By assuming the substitution of coal powered power plant, this would imply a cut of up to 21 tons ha1 y1 CO2. 
  • Processing bio-ores contributes less SOx emissions to the atmosphere because of their low sulfur contents.


Thus phytomining is an environment- and ecofriendly option as compared to the conventional extraction methods.



 However, the commercial viability of phytomining depends on many factors like the efficiency of phytoextraction and current market value of the processed metals. Phytomining has been commercially used for Ni and it is believed that it is less expensive than the conventional extraction methods. Using Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum, one can grow biomass containing 400 kg Ni ha1 with production costs of $250–500 ha1 . Considering Ni price of $40 kg1 (in 2006, Ni metal was trading on the London Metal Exchange at more than $40 kg1 ), Ni phytomining has become a highly profitable agricultural technology (crop value = $16 000 ha1 ) for Ni-contaminated or mineralized soils (Chaney et al., 2007). The enforcement of more strict legislation for limiting environmental pollution would make bio-based mining more attractive (Siddiqui et al., 2009).

 Source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ezzat_Khan/publication/235880244_Phytoremediation_of_heavy_metals-Concepts_and_applications/links/0f317534f5734634b5000000.pdf



MOhemp Energy: Hazardous Waste Escapes in Flood: The Bridgeton and Westlake Landfills have flooded and the toxins are escaping,  a perfect example of places that natural Phytoremediat...





Sunday, January 13, 2019

Phytoremediation of heavy metals:



 Recent techniques



CONCLUSION



The pollution of soil and water with heavy metals is an environmental concern today. Metals and other inorganic contaminants are among the most prevalent forms of contamination found at waste sites, and their remediation in soils and sediments are among the most technically difficult. The high cost of existing cleanup technologies led to the search for new cleanup strategies that have the potential to be low-cost, low-impact, visually benign, and environmentally sound. Phytoremediation is a new cleanup concept that involves the use of plants to clean or stabilize contaminated environments. Phytoremediation is a potential remediation strategy that can be used to decontaminate soils contaminated with inorganic pollutants. Research related to this relatively new technology needs to be promoted and emphasized and expanded in developing countries since it is low cost. In situ, solar driven technology makes use of vascular plants to accumulate and translocate metals from roots to shoots. Harvesting the plant shoots can permanently remove these contaminants from the soil. Phytoremediation does not have the destructive impact on soil fertility and structure that some more vigorous conventional technologies have such as acid extraction and soil washing. This technology can be applied “in situ” to remediate shallow soil, ground water and surface water bodies. Also, phytoremediation has been perceived to be a more environmentally-friendly “green” and lowtech alternative to more active and intrusive remedial methods.

Chhotu D. Jadia and M. H. Fulekar* Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai - 400 098, India. Accepted 19 December, 2008 http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/viewFile/59987/48257



Reblogged From: Hazardous Waste Escapes in Flood: The Bridgeton and Westlake Landfills have flooded and the toxins are escaping,  a perfect example of places that natural Phytoremediat...




3 Hemp Spokesmen Expose CBD safety



https://m.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=1114688218709442&id=526586707519599&ref=m_notif&__tn__=C-R
Contaminants or pesticides: Was the hemp grown in pesticide-soaked soil? Did it get into the product? Was the CBD extracted using solvents? Are they in the product? "Request batch testing [results] to make sure there's no issue of contaminants, toxins, heavy metals, etc.," says Stanley. "Every company should not only have in-house testing but also verify through credible third-party laboratories that the product has the right concentration of CBD and is free from contaminants, residual solvents, and pesticides." 

CBD from Hemp with another Phytoremediation Warning. 


Hemp is a powerful phytoremediation crop, which means it cleans the soil. Stanley (It's also referred to as a bio-accumulator.)

That means where hemp is planted, 

it absorbs everything that's in the soil around it—which can include toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, and nuclear fallout. 


You'll want to ensure the hemp in your product is grown using responsible farming practices in soil that is pre-tested for toxins



Reeves emphasized this too, saying the way hemp is grown is tantamount to its safety as a consumer product.

Melany Dobson, chief administrative officer at Hudson Hemp advises: 

Look for CBD products made with American-grown hemp because they're generally safer than hemp grown overseas.
Article source How to Buy the Best Safe and Effective CBD Products

Saturday, January 12, 2019

ElectroHemp Remediation Cost Comparison

ElectroHemp cost comparison with traditional remediation technique. 1 city block.

Reference: Findings and Recommendations for the Remediation...



The costs of remediating a site will vary depending on the concentration and distribution of the contamination, the size and layout of the site, and the remedial actions implemented. Table 6 presents cost estimates associated with each remedial option presented above for 1 acre of contamination that is assumed to be 1 foot deep (1 acre foot). These costs are based on the remediation of undeveloped farmland.

     Remediation costs could rise dramatically for existing development due to difficulties associated with the movement of soil around existing structures, trees, pools and decks. In addition, the remediation of properties with existing development would not have the benefits of economy of scale associated with undeveloped land.
https://www.nj.gov/dep/special/hpctf/final/costs.html
Proven and innovative soil treatment technologies
$50,000- $100,000 Remedial Option Cost per acre-foot
1 acre=1 acre is approximately 208.71 feet × 208.71 feet (a square) = 1 acre = 43,560 square feet X 1 foot soil = 43,560 cu yds soil
  • Low:  $50,000 ÷   43,560 = $1.15 /cuyd
  • High: $100,000 ÷ 43,560 = $2.30 /cuyd

_____
1 city block Ave size = typical city block as 100,000 sq.ft. 100,000 X 1 foot deep = 100,000 cu yd soil
_____

Traditional
$115,000
To
$230,000
ElectroHemp $100,333
$15,000
to
$130,000
Cheaper


Saturday, January 5, 2019

Denitrifying Bioreactor





Dentrifying Bioreactors  information, designs, tips, best use  and information.











What is a woodchip bioreactor?

Purdue University
https://engineering.purdue.edu/watersheds/conservationdrainage/bioreactors.html
Bioreactors are essentially subsurface trenches filled with a carbon source, mainly wood chips, through which water is allowed to flow just before leaving the drain to enter a surface water body. The carbon source in the trench serves as a substrate for bacteria that break down the nitrate through denitrification or other biochemical processes. Bioreactors provide many advantages:


  • They use proven technology
  • They require no modification of current practices
  • No land needs to be taken out of production
  • There is no decrease in drainage effectiveness
  • They require little or no maintenance
  • They last for up to 20 years.

How do bioreactors work? Organisms from the soil colonize the woodchips. Some of them break down the woodchips into smaller organic particles. Others “eat” the carbon produced by the woodchips, and “breathe” the nitrate from the water. Just as humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide, these microorganisms breathe in nitrate and breathe out nitrogen gas, which exits the bioreactor into the atmosphere. Through this mechanism, nitrate is removed from the tile water before it can enter surface waters.
Understanding Woodchip Bioreactors
Designing and Constructing Bioreactors to Reduce Nitrate Loss from Subsurface Drains (Illinois, tri-fold format)
Woodchip Bioreactors for Nitrate in Agricultural Drainage (Iowa, 4 pages. Click "Download" in blue table.)
"Evaluating Denitrifying Bioreactors" - On the Ground with the Leopold Center (Video from Iowa, 2:35)
Bioreactors: Benefits and Potential Challenges" - Iowa Learning Farms Webinar (Video recording from Iowa)
Design Information
Denitrifying Bioreactor (Code 747)NRCS Interim Conservation Practice Standard in Iowa and Indiana. Iowa Statement of Work
Interactive routine that can be used to determine size, cost and evaluate performance of a bioreactor installed in a field with a specified soil and county in Illinois: 
http://www.wq.illinois.edu/dg/Equations/Bioreactor.exe.
Financial Incentives
Denitrifying Bioreactors are eligible for financial assistance through the NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Where the conservation practice standard has been accepted, financial assistance is often available through EQIP. In Indiana, the incentive is $5800. Incentives in Iowa

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